2 edition of Some aspects of low voltage arc discharges in hydrogen. found in the catalog.
Some aspects of low voltage arc discharges in hydrogen.
Robert Charles George Leckey
Written in English
Thesis (Ph. D.)--The Queen"s University of Belfast, 1963.
|The Physical Object|
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma; the plasma may produce visible arc discharge is characterized by a lower voltage than a glow discharge and relies on thermionic emission of electrons from the electrodes supporting the arc. The physical processes and chemical reactions that take place inside different temperature plasma zones in water are only partially understood. The present study uses the emission spectroscopy and hydrogen peroxide measurements as indicators of the processes that take place on the gas–liquid boundary and inside plasma. Based on the hydrogen peroxide measurements with Cited by:
Abstract: A device has been built and tested, in which a ceramic superconducting cathode and a copper anode cause electrical discharges in low pressure gases, at temperatures between 50 and 70 K. The electrodes are connected to a capacitors array charged up to kV; peak currents are of the order of 10^4 A. The cathode has the diameter of 10 cm and is fabricated by OCMTG : Evgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese. Low-current “gliding arcs” in air flows General arrangement for producing gliding arc discharges Gliding arc at a low current Discharge with micro-hollow cathode and anode Typical electrode configurations and operating conditions of the discharge Current-voltage characteristics of File Size: KB.
However, most types of gas discharges exhibit non-ohmic current-voltage relations and are thus beyond linear response (i.e., “far from equilibrium”). This article addresses aspects of the pragmatic question, under which circumstances entropy production principles can be helpful for modeling electric discharge phenomena far from by: 8. Electrical discharges that burn inside an electrolyte bulk and have challenging practical applications are presented. The data on electrophysical and spectral properties of an underwater end-face discharge allowed suggesting the scenario of the discharge origination and development. It includes three stages: bubble growth, a quiet discharge, and an active discharge by: 4.
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Abstract – Arc Flash in low voltage equipment ( volts and below) is a safety issue that can impact work practices for electrical workers. When estimating incident energy for low voltage equipment, the duration of the arc is typically the driving factor.
This paper summarizes previous testing results thatFile Size: 1MB. The corona discharge along the field lines and that field lines ending outside 0 65° usually originate on the point surface outside the ionization region. The Warburg distribution is sketched in Fig.
In point-to-plane unipolar current coronas, as well as in wire-cylinder or wire-plane ones, space. Ignition of a hydrogen–air mixture by low voltage electrical contact arcs Article (PDF Available) in Combustion and Flame December with Reads How we measure 'reads'.
I am repairing some ozone generators and one of them has a tower with a discharge path I can't seem to get rid of. Back in the heyday of television, my dad ran a side (hobby) business repairing bw tv's.
Occasionally, he would use what looked to me (a 5 year old). Status of Low -Voltage Overcurrent Protective Device Calculations: Arc flash incident energies can be calculated based upon the spreadsheets in IEEE StdGuide for Performing A rc Flash Hazard Calculations. It is first necessary to input the circuit parameters in order to calculate free -air short.
ARC DISCHARGES IN HELIUM AND HYDROGEN The diameter o of the arc is given in Table II'for currents ofand mA; it increases linearly with pressure at constant current (eq. (6)), as is illustrated for mA in fig.
= A + Bp (6) It was found that at constant current the expression IIp ~ = K (7) holds, where I is the : A. Michels, H. Tjin A Djie, H. de Kluiver, C.A. Ten Seldam. arc discharge[′ärk ′dis‚chärj] (electricity) A direct-current electrical current between electrodes in a gas or vapor, having high current density and relatively low voltage drop.
Arc Discharge one of the types of stationary electric discharge in gases. It was first observed between two carbon electrodes in air by V. Petrov in and. A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in It is used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency alternating-current experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two, or sometimes three, coupled resonant electric or: Nikola Tesla.
One area of concern for arc flash analysis is the lower magnitude of low-voltage arc faults. Depending on which method is used to determine the incident energy results, the results can be very dif-ferent. Yet no matter which method is used for arc flash analysis, it may be nec-essary to run several variations in the arc fault current magnitude.
with a low-voltage, small-gap arc discharge will be small, but apart from some fuels which might be directly affected, such arcing may be the initial step in a failure sequence whereAuthor: Vytenis Babrauskas. Structure of the low-pressure gas discharge. If a gas-discharge tube is connected to a high-voltage DC source, or to an asymmetric (polarised) AC source (such as an induction coil), various structures will be seen in the glowing column depending on the gas pressure, the tube length, and the operating current.
Hydrogen-dominated discharges have a large fraction (>90%) of the input microwave power go into rotational and vibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen. However, with less molecular hydrogen in UNCD discharges, the argon plasma is bigger in size for a given input power and the power density in the discharge is substantially less by an order.
Paschen's law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage, that is, the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and gap length. It is named after Friedrich Paschen who discovered it empirically in Paschen studied the breakdown voltage of various gases between parallel metal plates as the gas pressure and gap.
Book Description. Plasma plays an important role in a wide variety of industrial processes, including material processing, environmental control, electronic chip manufacturing, light sources, and green energy, not to mention fuel conversion and hydrogen production, biomedicine, flow control, catalysis, and space propulsion.
The glow-to-arc transition that occurs at high repetition rate operation in near-atmospheric pressure, transverse electric gas discharges has been studied experimentally in helium and mixtures of helium and other gases (CO/sub 2/, CO, Ne, A, Kr, Xe).
A vacuum arc can arise when the surfaces of metal electrodes in contact with a good vacuum begin to emit electrons either through heating (thermionic emission) or in an electric field that is sufficient to cause field electron initiated, a vacuum arc can persist, since the freed particles gain kinetic energy from the electric field, heating the metal surfaces through high-speed.
Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Plasma Physics and Engineering by Alexander Fridman (, Hardcover, Revised, New Edition) at the best online prices at eBay. Free shipping for many products. This unique book provides a fundamental introduction to all aspects of modern plasma chemistry.
The book describes mechanisms and kinetics of chemical processes in plasma, plasma statistics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and electrodynamics, as well as all major electric discharges applied in plasma chemistry. voltage discharges in rarefied gases, varying the gas composition and pressure, as well as temperature, electrodes distance, containment magnetic field etc.
The motivation for this research originated in part from some works by Tonouchi et al. [3,4]. They investigated the behavior of ceramic superconducting films subjected to high. A typical low-intensity carbon arc for lighting operates at atmospheric pressure between two cylindrical carbon electrodes separated by a few millimeters, at a voltage of 55V and a current of 30A.
The cathode spot is at a temperature of about K, while the crater eroded in the anode carbon is around K, with a brilliance of cp/mm 2. Low pressure electrical discharges (LPED) Low pressure electrical discharge (LPED) sources are radiation sources in which radiation is produced by electrical discharges in gases at low pressures, i.e., pressures from to Pa.
(Source is the preferred term when a low pressure electrical discharge is used as the sampling Size: KB.Voltage Changes During Discharge. At the end of a charge, and before opening the charging circuit, the voltage of each cell is about to volts.
As soon as the charging circuit is opened, the cell voltage drops rapidly to about volts, within three or four minutes.programmed high voltage narrow impulsive discharges, in the hydrogen gas. Some results of the experiments, conducted varying the composition and particle size of the metal powders, the hydrogen pressure and the characteristics of impulsive discharges, will be shown in the conference.